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高职课堂变革要让学生站C位
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高职课堂变革要让学生站C位2019年11月25日,2019年全国职业院校技能大赛教学能力比赛决赛在湖南化工职业技

  2019年11月25日,2019年全国职业院校技能大赛教学能力比赛决赛在湖南化工职业技术学院闭幕。河南职业技术学院胡二坤团队展示参赛作品。靖鑫/摄

On November 25,2019, the final of the teaching ability competition of the National Vocational College skills Competition 2019 closed at Hunan Institute of Chemical Technology. Henan vocational and technical institute hu erkun team to show the entries. Jing Xin \/ Photo

  2018年6月14日,湖南化工职业技术学院思政课教师李菡(左一)和语文课教师邓滢(右一)共同带来了一堂特别的思政课。罗治国/摄

On June 14,2018, Li Han, a teacher of thought and politics at Hunan Institute of Chemical Technology, and Deng Ying, a Chinese teacher, brought a special ideological and political class together. Lo Chi-kuo\/Photo

  这一点,从近日落幕的2019年全国职业院校技能大赛教学能力比赛能略窥一斑,比如此次791支参赛教学团队呈现了多种多样的新型教学场景,有的将企业车间转变为教室,开展现场教学,有的开始尝试情境教学、项目式教学等。

This point, from the recent conclusion of the 2019 national vocational college skills competition teaching ability competition can be a glimpse, for example, the 791 participating teaching teams presented a variety of new teaching scene, some of the enterprise workshop into a classroom, on-site teaching, some began to try situational teaching, project-based teaching and so on.

  自2019年年初印发的《国家职业教育改革实施方案》(即“职教20条”)明确提出,要推进高等职业教育高质量发展,完善教育教学相关标准,多措并举打造“双师型”教师队伍等,关于“三教”(教师、教材、教法)和课堂质量的改革,便一直是高职教育领域的热点命题。

The National Vocational Education Reform Implementation Program (\" Vocational Education 20\"), issued at the beginning of 2019, clearly states that the reform of the \"Three Courses \"(teachers, teaching materials, teaching methods) and the quality of the classroom has always been a hot topic in the field of higher vocational education.

  如今的高职,正在努力破除社会对其存在的偏见,以质量为先,重塑课堂,打造“金课”,严抓“混教”“混学”,由此引发的“化学反应”正在不少学校的教与学中悄然发生。

Nowadays, the higher vocational colleges are trying to break down the prejudice of the society to its existence, take the quality as the first, reshape the classroom, create the \"golden lesson \", strictly grasp the\" mixed teaching \"and\" mixed learning \", the resulting \"chemical reaction\" is happening quietly in many schools.

  最近,南京工业职业技术学院党委书记吴学敏有个“幸福的烦恼”——有学生向他反映“图书馆因人多经常找不到座位坐”,还有人认为有的自习室关闭太早,建议学校开放更多能让学生每天学习至晚上11点的场所……

Recently, Wu Xuemin, secretary of the party committee of Nanjing Institute of Technology and Technology, had a \"happy annoyance \"- some students reported to him that\" the library often can't find a seat because of the large number of people \", others thought that some study rooms were closed too early, and suggested that the school should open more places for students to study every day until 11 p.m.

  说它是个“烦恼”,那是因为学校肯定要想办法解决学生所提的问题。吴学敏之所以还觉得“幸福”,则是因为这些问题无一不关于学习,若是以前,他所听到的学生建议更多的是关于“食堂怎么让饭菜更好吃”之类。

To say that it is an \"annoyance\" is because the school must find a way to solve the problems the students are asking. The reason why mr. wu still feels \"happy\" is that all these questions are about learning. If he had heard more about \"how to make the food better\" and so on.

  而这一转变,与南京工业职业技术学院自2018年开始的“课堂质量年”改革不无关系。当时,吴学敏就注意到,00后学生不喜欢冗长的理论介绍,对于枯燥的理论学习表现出更强的厌恶情绪,而需要学生亲自动手的实践类课程,更能得到他们的偏爱。学生在变,但部分老师变化较慢,在课堂上存在着应对新的“学情”在教学方法、内容的转变上不够及时,课堂教学效果不够理想等问题。

And this transformation, and Nanjing Institute of Technology and Technology since 2018 began the \"classroom quality year\" reform is not unrelated. At that time, Wu Xuemin noticed that the students after 00 did not like the lengthy theoretical introduction, and showed a stronger disgust for the boring theoretical study, but the practical class courses that needed the students to do it themselves could get their preference more. Students are changing, but some teachers are changing slowly, there are problems in the classroom to deal with the new \"learning situation\" in the teaching method, the content of the transformation is not timely enough, the classroom teaching effect is not ideal enough and so on.

  谈及为何主动开始“课改”,北京电子科技职业学院电信工程学院教师裴春梅告诉记者,她发现,很多学生平日里不爱上课,但若是参加大赛集训就像换了个人似的,“如果碰到弄不明白的,就非要泡在实验室弄明白才行,有的甚至会睡在实验室”。同时也因辅导学生参加相关竞赛积累了不少实战经验,裴春梅等3人商量“必须得改一改,如果维持以前的状态,我们会慢慢失去学生”。

When it comes to taking the initiative to start \"curriculum reform \", pei chunmei, a teacher at the telecommunication engineering institute of beijing institute of electronic technology, told reporters that she found that many students do not like to attend classes on weekdays, but if they take part in the competition training as if they were someone else,\" if you don't understand, you have to be in the laboratory to understand, some will even sleep in the laboratory.\" At the same time, because tutoring students to participate in the competition has accumulated a lot of practical experience, Pei Chunmei and other three people discussed \"must change a change, if maintain the previous state, we will slowly lose students.\"

  在裴春梅看来,现在学生有他们的独特性,比如学习更多以兴趣为驱动,通过网络获取信息、自我学习的能力很强,“有的甚至比老师还要强,懂得比老师还多”。“这时候你再像以前教C语言那样,一句一句命令地去教,他们会觉得很简单,我干嘛还要跟着你学?所以要让他们成为课堂的主角,而不是教师‘满堂灌’”。

In Pei Chunmei's view, students now have their own uniqueness, such as learning more interest-driven, through the network to obtain information, self-learning ability is very strong,\" some even better than teachers, know more than teachers. \"Then you're going to teach C language like you used to, and they're going to think it's simple. Why should I follow you? So let them be the main characters in the classroom, not the teachers.

  在南京工业职业技术学院,早课于8点开始,但以前在这个时刻过后,仍能看到不少学生还在去上课的路上,“去查学生宿舍,也有不少有课的学生还未起床。”吴学敏发现,每天去巡查课堂时,不少坐在课堂的学生也并没认真学习,“尤其是教室后面几排的学生,有睡觉的、有玩手机的,更有窃窃私语的”。

At nanjing vocational and technical college, early classes started at 8 o'clock, but after this moment, we can still see that many students are still on the way to class,\" to check student dormitories, and many students with classes have not yet got up.\" Wu xuemin found that every day to inspect the classroom, many students sitting in the classroom did not seriously study,\" especially in the back of the classroom a few rows of students, there are sleeping, playing with mobile phones, more whispering.\"

  一场“课堂革命”势在必行。但在吴学敏看来,与其说这是一场教育教学的改革,不如说是人才培养模式的一次全方位变革,“时代在变,学生也在变。社会信息技术的发展、国家产业的转型升级等都对技能人才提出了更高的要求。怎么培养适应时代需求的高质量技能人才?最终要落脚在课堂”。

A \"classroom revolution\" is imperative. But in Wu Xuemin's view, this is not so much a reform of education and teaching as a comprehensive change of talent training mode,\" the times are changing, and the students are also changing. The development of social information technology and the transformation and upgrading of national industry all put forward higher requirements for skilled personnel. How to cultivate high - quality skilled personnel to meet the needs of the times? We'll end up in class.

  如今,重塑课堂,打造“金课”,严抓“混教”“混学”已成为不少高职院校及其教师自觉的行动:为了备好《管理会计》这门课,湖南化工职业技术学院会计专业教师朱敏等人花了一年多时间,一边去企业搜集数据和案例来开发案例库,一边琢磨教学方案;在进行《电子产品设计与制作》这门课的“课改”时,北京电子科技职业学院电信工程学院教师裴春梅、朱恭生和蔡志芳跑了四五家企业去了解人工智能技术的应用与开发,还常请企业相关人员来学校“辅导”自己,仅备课就来回推敲了近半年。

In order to prepare for the course of \"Management Accounting \", Zhu Min, a professional accounting teacher at Hunan Institute of Chemical Technology, spent more than a year collecting data and cases to develop the case base while pondering the teaching plan.

  可以说,课堂质量改革关键在于老师。正如浙江育英职业技术学院副院长王敏所说,“学生在大学里学习,最受益、最直接、最核心、最显效的就是课堂,而课堂质量高低的关键在于教师的教学水平。”

It can be said that the key to classroom quality reform lies in teachers. As wang min, vice-dean of zhejiang yuying vocational and technical college, said,\" the most beneficial, direct, central and effective thing for students to study in a university is the classroom, and the key to the quality of the classroom is the teaching level of the teacher.\"

  据湖南化工职业技术学院院长王雄伟介绍,学校会进行一年一度的教学能力比赛,将比赛目标、内容、训练和组织管理对接人才培养目标、课程教学内容、教学实施与评价考核,并且将比赛训练纳入专业人才培养计划,将比赛融入了常规教学活动中,让全体教师都有参与比赛活动的机会,从而提升教师的教学能力等。

According to Wang Xiongwei, president of Hunan Institute of Chemical Technology, the school will conduct an annual teaching ability competition, which will connect the competition objectives, contents, training and management with the personnel training objectives, course teaching contents, teaching implementation and evaluation, and incorporate the competition training into the professional personnel training plan, so that all teachers can have the opportunity to participate in the competition activities, so as to enhance the teaching ability of teachers.

  此外,据记者了解,不少高职院校在不断为教师的教学“加码”,比如增加对教师教学能力的培训力度,提升教学能力较强的老师的奖金、待遇等。

In addition, according to reporters, many higher vocational colleges continue to \"add code\" for teachers'teaching, such as increasing the training of teachers'teaching ability, and improving the bonus and treatment of teachers with strong teaching ability.

  但王敏也在思考,我们一直在给老师做“加法”,能否也做下“减法”?比如,减少教学能力较弱的老师的课时量的同时,加强对这些教师职业能力的培训。如果培训之后仍然不能胜任教师岗位,可以进行转岗,甚至可以进行末位淘汰。

But Wang Min is also thinking, we have been doing \"addition\" to the teacher, can we also do \"subtraction \"? For example, while reducing the number of hours taught by teachers with weaker teaching skills, the training of these teachers'professional abilities should be strengthened. If after the training still cannot be qualified for the teacher post, can carry on the transfer, even can carry on the last elimination.

  “而做‘减法’的前提,是要有一个完善的评价体系。”王敏介绍,在之前的评测体系中,“不少教师的得分都在96分、97分左右,最低也有90分”。但在对评价体系进行调整,纳入更多合理、科学、全面的评价指标后,对老师进行分档评价,实行“基本条件 业绩量化排序”,“一下子,老师的教学差距就显现了出来,个别甚至会不及格,那接下来,对于不及格的老师,我们就会减少课时量等”。

“The premise of subtraction is to have a sound evaluation system." Wang Min said that in the previous evaluation system," many teachers score around 96 points,97 points, the lowest also have 90 points." However, after adjusting the evaluation system and incorporating more reasonable, scientific and comprehensive evaluation indicators, the teachers are graded and evaluated, and the "quantitative ranking of basic condition performance" is carried out.

  走进北京电子科技职业学院电信工程学院《电子产品设计与制作》的教室就可以发现,与传统教室的布局不同,这里每4套桌椅为一组进行排放,每组共享两台电脑和两套仪器仪表,学生上课时分组完成课堂任务。课程由裴春梅、朱恭生和蔡志芳3位教师共同讲授,在七八年前便已开课。但经过这两年的两次课改,课堂已焕然一新——

Walking into the classroom of \"design and production of electronic products\" at the telecommunication engineering institute of beijing college of electronic science and technology, we can find that, unlike the traditional layout of the classroom, every four sets of tables and chairs are emitted in one group, each sharing two computers and two sets of instruments and instruments, and the students complete the class tasks in groups during the class. The course was jointly taught by three teachers, namely, Pei Chunmei, Zhu Gongsheng and Cai Zhifang, and had commenced seven or eight years ago. But after two courses in the past two years, the classroom has taken on a new look -

  原本课程主要教学生画电路板原理图和制作电路板,如今则将其他课程内容和人工智能新技术也融入其中,并以企业真实工作项目为载体,构建了基于工作过程的模块化课程,实施项目式教学,学生在课程结束前需各自完成3个可用人工智能语音控制的产品设计与制作。而老师则主要发挥引导作用,将主体地位让位给学生,以任务为驱动引导其“课前预习、课中学习、课后拓展”,进行自主学习。

Originally the course mainly taught students to draw circuit board schematics and make circuit boards, now the other courses and artificial intelligence new technology into it, and take the enterprise real work project as the carrier, the construction of a modular course based on the work process, the implementation of project-based teaching, students before the end of the course to complete the three artificial intelligence voice control product design and production. But the teacher mainly plays the leading role, gives the main body position to the student, takes the task as the drive to guide its \"pre-class, in-class study, after-class expansion \", carries on the independent study.

  “以往,学生不知道自己所学的东西究竟能用来干什么,以设计制作人工智能产品任务作为驱动,他们的兴趣一下子被激发了起来,就会自己主动去学。”裴春梅告诉记者,以往都是老师“赶着”学生学习,现在更多的是学生拉着老师一起讨论。她做过一个大致的统计,课改前学生的课堂任务完成率约为50%-60%,现在则是100%,“并且他们自主去学,更能锻炼他们创新创造等综合能力”。

“In the past, students didn't know exactly what they could do, driven by the task of designing and making AI products, and their interest was suddenly aroused and they took the initiative to learn. Pei Chunmei told reporters that teachers used to "rush" students to study, now more students are pulling teachers to discuss together. She did a general statistic that pre-school students had about 50% to 60% of their classroom tasks completed, and now 100%," and they are more able to exercise their ability to innovate and create."

  在湖南化工职业技术学院会计专业教师朱敏看来,在信息技术如此发达的今天,对会计人才也提出了更高的要求,比如“需要他们有更强的数据分析能力,而非简单的报账”。于是,她所教授的《管理会计》也进行了“迭代升级”,将“可以被人工智能取代的内容”剔除,而在企业的真实财务数据上进行“实战”,“以往可能更多的是根据我的内容来授课,现在则是根据学生的‘学情’,看他们需要什么、学得如何来制作‘活页式’教材”。

In the view of zhu min, an accounting teacher at hunan institute of chemical technology, the information technology is so well developed today, it also puts forward higher requirements for accounting talents, such as \"need them to have stronger data analysis ability rather than simple reporting \". So her \"management accounting\" has also been \"iteratively upgraded \", eliminating\" what can be replaced by artificial intelligence \"and\" actual combat \"on the real financial data of the company,\" perhaps more based on my content in the past, but now it is based on the students'situation, to see what they need and how they can learn to produce\" loose-leaf \"textbooks.

  除了内容改革,朱敏还利用“云课堂”、大数据等信息技术,来实时观察每位学生的学习进度等,“大数据会为每位学生进行画像,哪里有什么缺漏可以及时掌握,我们也才好根据具体的‘学情’来调整教学”。

In addition to content reform, zhu also used \"cloud classroom \", big data and other information technology to observe the progress of each student in real time,\" big data will be a portrait of each student, where there are any gaps can be grasped in time, we can also adjust the teaching according to the specific' learning situation'.

  与之类似,如今实训虚拟仿真软件、网络交互平台等在高职课堂上并不鲜见,翻转课堂、混合式教学等信息化教学方式也正在成为“常态”。

Similarly, it is not uncommon to practice virtual simulation software, network interactive platform and so on in the higher vocational classroom, and the information teaching methods such as flipping classroom and mixed teaching are becoming \"normal \".

  “但是要进一步提升课堂质量,仅靠老师个体的力量是远远不够的。”在裴春梅看来,自己目前在课堂上所作出的改变仅局限于一门课程,若要综合更多门课程内容进行授课,则涉及教材的编写、课程体系的梳理、教师安排、校企合作、学校管理等众多内容,“职业教育是一种类型教育,我们的课程体系、形式不能按照本科去做,如果打造符合学校、学生特点的课程,需要学校进行‘上层设计’”。

“But to further improve the quality of the class, it's not enough to rely on the individual strength of the teacher." In Pei Chunmei's view, his current changes in the classroom are limited to only one course, to integrate more courses to teach, it involves the compilation of teaching materials, curriculum system combing, teacher arrangement, school-enterprise cooperation, school management and so on." Vocational education is a type of education, our curriculum system and form cannot be done according to the undergraduate course, if we build the curriculum that conforms to the characteristics of the school and students, we need the school to carry out the "upper design ".

  也正是出于这样的考虑,南京工业职业技术学院在2018年开始进行“课程质量年”建设时便让“顶层设计”先行,发布了《“课堂质量年”实施方案》来明确活动指导思想、总体目标、实施步骤等,各二级教学单位再据此制定详细的实施细则,全面落实各项改革任务。

It is precisely because of this consideration that when the Nanjing Institute of Industry and Technology began the construction of the \"Curriculum Quality Year\" in 2018, it let the \"Top-level Design\" first, and issued the \"Classroom Quality Year\" implementation plan to clarify the guiding ideology, overall objectives, implementation steps and so on.

  “教学的理念是什么?什么是一堂好课?考核的标准是什么?……这些我们都进行了修订和明确。”据吴学敏介绍,学校据此出台了《南京工业职业技术学院课堂教学管理规定》《一堂好课的标准》《课堂手机管理规定》等条文,编制完成了新版《教师手册》,以方便教师了解学校教学管理、人事人才、科学研究和质量监控等方面的规定。

What is the concept of “teaching? What is a good lesson? What are the criteria for assessment? …… These have been revised and clarified. According to Wu Xuemin, the school has issued the regulations on the management of classroom teaching in Nanjing Vocational and Technical College of Technology, such as the standards for a good class, the regulations on the management of classroom mobile phones, and compiled a new edition of the Teacher's Manual to facilitate teachers to understand the regulations on school teaching management, personnel personnel, scientific research and quality control.

  有了“路线图”,接下来关键在于如何在课堂中落实。吴学敏等学校领导带头深入教学一线参加巡查工作,对学生迟到以及教师管理课堂方法不到位等不良现象进行监督,对教师上课迟到或者影响教学的行为根据学校《教学事故处理办法》予以处理。与此同时,学校构建争先机制,树立质量标兵,在全校遴选出15门课程在全校范围内开展教学观摩,并通过举办主题教研等活动,促进教师相互交流教学经验,以提升教学能力等。

With the \"road map \", the next key is how to implement it in class. Wu Xuemin and other school leaders took the lead in in-depth teaching to participate in the inspection work, to supervise the students'lateness and the teacher's management of the classroom methods are not in place, and to deal with the behavior of teachers who are late for class or affect the teaching according to the \"Measures for the Handling of Teaching Accidents \". At the same time, the school builds the vanguard mechanism, sets up the quality standard soldier, selects 15 courses in the whole school to carry out the teaching observation in the whole school scope, and through organizing the theme teaching and research and other activities, promotes the teachers to exchange the teaching experience to enhance the teaching ability and so on.

  眼下,南京工业职业技术学院正通过课堂质量“创新提质年”系列举措来进一步深化2018年“课堂质量年”建设的成果。正如吴学敏所说,“提升课堂质量,与时俱进改进教学方式方法,这是个长期不懈的过程,可不是暂时抓抓就可以的”。

At present, Nanjing Institute of Industry and Technology is further deepening the achievements of the construction of \"classroom quality year 2018\" through the series of measures of classroom quality\" innovation and quality improvement year \". As wu xuemin put it,\" to improve the quality of the classroom and improve the teaching methods with the times, this is a long-term unremitting process, but not to grasp it for a while.\"

推荐阅读报告:60%的儿童参与课外班平均年花费9211元日前,《中国儿童发展报告(2019)——儿童校外生活状况》在京发布。报告显示,儿童参与课外班日常化,课外班已成为校外生活的重要组成部分。

Recommended Reading Report:60 percent of children spend an average of 9211 yuan a year on extracurricular classes. According to the report, children's participation in extracurricular classes has become an important part of life outside school.

8类“校闹”将受严惩五部门发文保障学校安心办学教育部、最高人民法院等五部门联合印发《关于完善安全事故处理机制维护学校教育教学秩序的意见》,构建起治理“校闹”的制度体系,为学校安心办学提供保障。

The five departments jointly issued the \"Opinions on Improving the Handling Mechanism of Safety Accidents and Maintaining the Order of Education and Teaching in Schools,\" and set up a system for managing\" school trouble \"to provide guarantee for schools to run schools at ease.


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